The Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) Strategy has been adopted for all round development of tribal areas throughout the country since Fifth Five-Year Plan. Under the TSP approach almost entire tribal inhabited area have been covered under one of the following, depending upon their population percentile:
Integrated Area Development Project (ITDPs)
Modified Area Development Approach (MADA)
Primitive Tribal Groups
The TSP approach ensures allocation of fund for tribal areas from State Plan as well as Central Ministries, at least proportionate to population of tribals in the state (from state plan) and to the overall proportionate tribal population for the country from the budget of Central Ministries and Financial Institutions etc.
BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SCHEMES
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements various Schemes and Programmes aimed at welfare and development of Scheduled Tribes. An Overview of the activities of the Ministry is as follows:-
SPECIAL CENTRAL ASSISTANCE TO TRIBAL SUB-PLAN: (SCA TO TSP)
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs extends special central assistance to the TSP States and Union Territories and also to North Eastern States of Assam, Manipur and Tripura as an additional grant to these states/UTs. These grants are basically meant for family oriented income generating Scheme in various TSP areas to meet the gaps, which have not otherwise been taken care of by the State Plan.
GRANTS UNDER FIRST PROVISO TO ARTICLE 275 (1) OF THE CONSTITUTION
The Ministry provides Grant-in-Aid to TSP and tribal majority States under Article 275 (1) of the constitution to meet the cost of such projects for tribal development as may be undertaken by the State Government for raising the level of administration of Scheduled Areas therein to the level of the rest of the state. In the Ninth Plan, besides other projects, from the funds allocated under this Scheme it was proposed to establish 100 Residential Schools on the pattern of Navodaya Vidyalayas.
The Scheme for construction of Girls Hostels for STs is a useful instrument for spreading education among tribal girls whose literacy is only 18.91% as per 1991 census. Under the Scheme funds are provided to all the TSP States and Union Territories having tribal population for construction of hostels on sharing basis (50:50) to States and 100% to UTs.
Like the Scheme for Girls Hostel, under this Scheme funds are provided to states on sharing basis (50:50) and 100% to UTs for construction of Boys Hostel for STs.
ASHRAM SCHOOLS IN TRIBAL SUB-PLAN AREAS
The Ministry under the Scheme provides funds to all the States and UTs having tribal population for establishment of residential schools for STs in an environment conducive to learning near their habitations on sharing basis (50:50) to States and 100% to UTs.
The main aim of this Scheme is to develop the skill of the tribal youth in order to get employment or to avail opportunities for self-employment. Under this Scheme cent percent grant is provided to States/ UTs/ State Government run institutions or organizations as well as registered Non Governmental Organizations for establishment of Vocational Training Centres with the capacity of 100 students at each centre.
EDUCATIONAL COMPLEX IN LOW LITERACY POCKETS FOR WOMEN IN TRIBAL AREAS
This Scheme provides cent percent financial assistance to NGOs/ Organization established by government as autonomous bodies/educational & other institutions like Cooperative Societies, to establish educational complexes in 136 identified districts of erstwhile 11 states (now 13) where tribal female literacy is below 10% as per 1991 census. Educational complex is meant for girls studying from class I to V with strength of 30 students in each class. The grants are provided to meet non-recurring as well as recurring expenses on building (hiring or maintenance) teaching, boarding, lodging and to also for medical and health care of students.
GRANTS-IN-AID TO STATE TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATIVE CORPORATIONS AND OTHERS
This is a Central Sector Scheme, with 100% grant, available to the state Tribal Development Cooperative Corporation (STDCCs) and other similar corporations of State engaged in collection and trading of minor forest produce (MFP) through tribals Grants under the Scheme are provided to strengthen the Share Capital of Corporations, construction of Warehouses, establishment of processing industries of MFPs etc. to ensure high profitability of the corporation so as to enable them to pay remunerative prices for MFPs to the tribals.
PRICE SUPPORT TO TRIFED
The Ministry provides Grants-in-aid to its corporation, TRIFED to set off losses on account of fluctuations in prices of MFPs being marketed by it for ensuring remunerative prices to tribals engaged in collection of MFPs either directly or through STDCCs and other such Cooperative Societies.
INVESTMENT IN SHARE CAPITAL OF TRIFED
The Ministry is the largest shareholder of TRIFED with over 99% contribution in its Share Capital. Under this Scheme, the Ministry provides funds to TRIFED as its contribution in the Share Capital.
VILLAGE GRAIN BANKS
This Scheme provides Grants for establishment of Village Grain Banks to prevent deaths of STs specially children in remote and backward tribal villages facing or likely to face starvation and also to improve nutritional standards. The Scheme provides funds for building storage facility, procurement of Weights & Measures and for the purchase of initial stock of one quintal of food grain of local variety for each family. A Committee under Chairmanship of village Headman runs the Grain Bank thus established.
GRANT-IN-AID TO VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS
As many as 27 types of projects with focus on tribal education, literacy, medical & health care, vocational training in agriculture, horticulture, craftsmanship etc., are being supported by the Ministry under this Scheme through registered Non-Governmental Organizations.
RESEARCH & TRAINING
Under the Scheme "Research & Training" the Ministry provides financial assistance under three components:-
Grants to Tribal Research Institutes on 50:50 sharing basis; for conducting Research & Evaluation Studies, Seminars, Workshops etc.
Award of Research Fellowship to Tribal Students on 100% basis registered in Indian Universities.
Supporting projects of All-India or Inter-State nature on 100% basis to NGOs/Universities etc. for conducting research on tribal matters, Travel Grants and for Publication of Books on tribals.
DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMITIVE TRIBAL GROUPS
Under this Scheme cent per-cent assistance is provided to NGOs and other institutions for under-taking projects on development of PTGs on activities mainly focusing on their food security literacy, agriculture technology up gradation, etc.
POST MATRIC SCHOLARSHIPS, OVERSEAS SCHOLARSHIPS AND BOOK BANKS
The post-matric scholarship Scheme provides financial assistance to all ST students for pursuance of post-matric studies in recognized institutions within India. The Scheme provides for 100% assistance from the Ministry to State Governments and UT Administrations implementing the Scheme, over and above their respective committed liabilities. The Ministry also gives financial assistance for setting up Book-Banks in institutions running professional courses like Medicine, Engineering, Law, Agriculture, Veterinary, Chartered Accountancy, Business Management, and Bio-Sciences. Annually, Ministry provides financial assistance to 9 meritorious ST students for Post-graduate, Doctoral and Post-Doctoral studies in foreign universities/institutions of repute.
UPGRADATION OF MERIT AND COACHING
These Schemes provide 100% central assistance to State/UT Administrations. The up gradation of merit Scheme is for arranging coaching classes in reputed colleges for developing competence among ST students for their better performance in competitive examinations conducted by various universities institutes for admission to Medical and Engineering courses while the Scheme for coaching is for conducting Pre-Examination Coaching for tribal students for various examinations conducted by UPSC, SSC, Banking Services Recruitment Boards etc.
MONITORING & EVALUATION OF EFFORTS ON TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT
The Constitution of India guarantees not only the social-economic upliftment of tribal people but also provides for objective evaluation of the administration and control of the Scheduled Areas and the Scheduled Tribes in any State other than Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura (for which there are separate provisions) through the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution Article 244 (i) ensures submission of Annual Reports by the Governors of the States to President of India regarding administration of the Scheduled Areas and setting up of Tribal Advisory Council to advise on such matters pertaining to the welfare and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes.
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs being the Nodal Ministry for overall policy, planning and coordination of programmes for the development of tribals, monitors the progress and achievement made by variousMinistries/Departments for 22 TSP States/UTs under Point 11(b) of the 20 Point Programme.The Ministry monitors the achievements made under various developmental programmes by engaging State Tribal Research Institutes/Universities/other institutions and also through field inspection by Officers of the Ministry.
The Governors' Report is an objective evaluation of the development efforts undertaken by the State Government in Scheduled Areas of the State with regard to administration. The Scheduled Areas have been declared in eight States namely, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar (now Bihar & Jharkhand), Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh (now Madhya Pradesh & Chhatisgarh), Orissa and Rajasthan, Governor's Report provides an unbiased assessment of the situation in Scheduled Areas of the State, inter alia, various measures taken for up gradation of administration of such areas, implementation of protective laws, matters referred to the "Tribal Advisory Council" (TAC) and their recommendations etc.
The States are required to send the Governor's Report within six months of the closing of the financial year i.e. by 30th September of each year. The latest position of receipt of the report is given in table below:-
TRIBAL ADVISORY COUNCIL (TAC)
Eight States having Scheduled Areas, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar (now Bihar & Chhatisgarh), Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh (now Madhya Pradesh and Chhatisgarh), Orissa & Rajasthan and two Non Scheduled Area States, namely, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal have constituted TACs. The TACs consist of not more than twenty-five members of whom as many as three-fourth members are Scheduled Tribe representatives of the State Legislative Assembly (ST-MLAs). The Governor of the State may refer matters concerning to administration of welfare of tribals to the TACs for recommendations.
The Ministry issues guidelines for TACs. As per latest guidelines the TACs should meet at least twice a year and discuss the issues concerning tribal interests and making appropriate recommendation for protection of tribal interests.
POINT 11(B) OF 20 POINT PROGRAMME
The point 11 (b) of 20 Point Programme is to provide economic assistance to the Scheduled Tribe families to enable them to rise above poverty line. The ST families are assisted through various Schemes implemented by Departments of Agriculture, Rural Development, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Sericulture, Forestry, Small & Cottage Industries, etc.
The Ministry fixes the targets for 22 States/UT s and also monitors the progress of achievements on monthly basis. The officers of the Ministry inspected more than 75 projects in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Orissa, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.